Dr. Boyd's laboratory's goal is to understand the lymphocyte genotype-phenotype relationships in healthy human immunity and in immunological diseases. They apply new technologies and data analysis approaches to this challenge, particularly high-throughput DNA sequencing and single-cell monoclonal antibody generation, in parallel with functional assays. Their initial focus has been defining clonal lineages of B cells and their antigen specificity in clinical samples from healthy individuals undergoing vaccination or responding to infection, as well as in patients with immune-mediated diseases such as food allergy. Other areas of active research are the B cell responses to HIV, immune deficiencies related to human aging, and transplant immunology.